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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Cement Industry and

2012-4-11  classified as primary sources, i.e. oil, coal, gas, other fuels and electricity, and secondary sources, i.e. waste heat from one phase of the process which can be recovered and utilized in another phase. The theoretical heat requirement for the production of clinker, the main substance of cement, is estimated at about 1.75 ± 0.1 MJ per kg clinker.

Cement Clinker an overview ScienceDirect Topics

As is evident from the oxide composition analysis in Chapter 4, SSA appears to be another potentially suitable candidate for exploitation as raw feed in the cement clinker manufacturing process, with average contents of 32% SiO 2, 14% CaO, 14% Al 2 O 3 and 11% Fe 2 O 3. The vast size of the cement industry also adds to the appeal of this application, as the use of SSA even at low proportions to some degree

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION repository.up.ac.za

2016-10-31  combustion. Slagging can cause several problems which reduce the ability to raise steam, lead to increased corrosion and slag dropping into the bottom of the furnace, leading to hopper blockage in boiler operation. For pulverised coal combustion the sintered deposits were found to be rich in anorthite (Unsworth et al., 1987).

The life cycle inventory study of cement manufacture

2014-6-1  In the burning or incineration process, the raw meal is fed from feed inlet to the preheater, and then falls into the calciner to decompose with coal combustion at 950 °C. Afterward, this decomposed materials fall into the kiln to be incinerated to form a new intermediate product--clinker over 1400 °C.

Life Cycle Assessment of Cement Clinker Production

The results showed that: 1) After adding coal gangue to the raw meal, almost all the considered environmental impacts of cement clinker including human toxicity potential, photochemical smog potential, especially abiotic depletion potential decreased significantly.

Materials Science Forum Vol. 814 p. 9 Scientific.Net

Environmental pollution in the process of coal mining is one of the typical environmental problems confronted in China. In this paper, the life cycle inventory (LCI) of gangue was acquired by the method of life cycle assessment and further environmental impact assessment was achieved as well.

Analysis on differences of carbon dioxide emission

2015-9-15  Table 2 shows that if the limestone content in raw meal decreased from 83.91% to 82.22%, the clinker quality will present a decline (K was decreased from 0.89 to 0.85), and the process emission will be reduced by 12.36 kg for per ton clinker production. While, if the limestone content in raw meal increased by 2% (up to 85.17%), the process emission factor will lift up to 531.9 kg.

Characterization and parametric study of the flow

2021-4-22  clinker produced [3]. As a rule of thumb, the raw meal can be assumed to consist of approximately 75% of limestone and 25% of clay. 1.1.1 Cement chemistry First of all it is needed to be said that the raw meal composition and its mineralogical

Life Cycle Inventory of Gangue as Alternative Raw

Environmental pollution in the process of coal mining is one of the typical environmental problems confronted in China. In this paper, the life cycle inventory (LCI) of gangue was acquired by the method of life cycle assessment and further environmental impact assessment was achieved as well.

Life cycle inventory processes of the integrated steel

2015-5-27  The cokemaking process involves carbonization of coal to high temperatures (1100 °C) in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere in order to concentrate the carbon (Valia 2014). The commercial cokemaking process can be broken down into two categories: (i) by-product cokemaking and (ii) nonrecovery/heat recovery cokemaking, because by-products are not recovered (Valia 2014 ).

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CEMENT PRODUCTION

2014-5-27  process applied. Consumption of raw materials. Cement manufacture is a high volume process. Typical averages in Table 3 indicate consumptions of raw materials for the production of cement in the European Union. The figures in the final column are for a plant with a clinker production of 3000 tones/day or 1 million

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION repository.up.ac.za

2016-10-31  Chapter 1- Introduction 2 Figure 1.1: Sasol-Lurgi Fixed Bed Dry Bottom (FBDB) gasifier. In the gasification process, fluxing elements-bearing minerals or non-mineral inorganic elements interact with aluminium silicate present in the coal to lower the melting points of the

Life Cycle Assessment of the Cement Industry in Zimbabwe

causes respiratory problems and diseases. Dust from the coal mill and the raw meal silos are equally liable. The cement kiln dust is also harmful to plants. Once it settles on the leaves, it deprives them of photosynthesis. Spillage from the cement mill, the kiln and from the raw mill and raw mill silos cover the land and when it comes into contact

production in Myanmar Thant Zin Tun et al

2020-11-30  The process of burning coal from the main process of the cement industry produces CO. 2, NO. x, SO. 2. and particulate emissions. The emissions of exhaust gases produced are dominated by CO. 2. gas. 0.5 tonnes of CO. 2 . are produced per tonne of cement in the decarbonisation process of limestone when the raw material is burned. Then 0.75 tons

Materials Science Forum Vol. 814 p. 9 Scientific.Net

Environmental pollution in the process of coal mining is one of the typical environmental problems confronted in China. In this paper, the life cycle inventory (LCI) of gangue was acquired by the method of life cycle assessment and further environmental impact assessment was achieved as well.

Life Cycle Inventory of Gangue as Alternative Raw

With the development of science and technology and industry level, solid wastes are fully utilized. Among which gangue is the solid waste generated in the process of coal mining, its comprehensive utilization rate is more than 60%. Environmental pollution in the process of coal mining is one of the typical environmental problems confronted in China.

The LCA of portland cement production in China

2014-9-23  In the burning process, the ground and mixed raw materials-raw meal are input to the preheater, and then to the calciner, decomposing with 60 % of coal at 950 °C. The limestone decomposes for about 95 % in the calciner and for 5 % in the kiln. The decomposed materials fall into the kiln and are incinerated to be clinker with 40 % of coal at a

The clinker burning process and its influence on the

2021-2-19  composition of raw mix Chemical & mineralogical composition of clinker Burning process Chemical composition of fuels Circulation phenomena Factors influencing cement quality Cement is produced by grinding clinker together with some admixtures: gypsum, slag, pozzolan, limestone, among others. Free lime C3S C2S C3A C4AF Gypsum

What is Cement Clinker? Composition, Types & Uses

2021-7-14  Clinker is a nodular material produced in the kilning stage during the production of cement and is used as the binder in many cement products. The lumps or nodules of clinker are usually of diameter 3-25 mm and dark grey in color. It is produced by heating limestone and clay to the point of liquefaction at about 1400°C-1500°C in the rotary kiln.

Life cycle inventory processes of the integrated steel

2015-5-27  The goal of this paper is to describe the life cycle inventory (LCI) approach to the cokemaking process in the Integrated Steel Plant’s Coke Oven Battery (ISPCOB) in Kraków, Poland. The system boundaries were labeled as gate-to-gate, covering the full chain process of coke production. The background input and output data from the coke production process (CPP) has been inventoried.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION repository.up.ac.za

2016-10-31  Chapter 1- Introduction 2 Figure 1.1: Sasol-Lurgi Fixed Bed Dry Bottom (FBDB) gasifier. In the gasification process, fluxing elements-bearing minerals or non-mineral inorganic elements interact with aluminium silicate present in the coal to lower the melting points of the

production in Myanmar Thant Zin Tun et al

2020-11-30  The process of burning coal from the main process of the cement industry produces CO. 2, NO. x, SO. 2. and particulate emissions. The emissions of exhaust gases produced are dominated by CO. 2. gas. 0.5 tonnes of CO. 2 . are produced per tonne of cement in the decarbonisation process of limestone when the raw material is burned. Then 0.75 tons

Life Cycle Assessment of the Cement Industry in Zimbabwe

causes respiratory problems and diseases. Dust from the coal mill and the raw meal silos are equally liable. The cement kiln dust is also harmful to plants. Once it settles on the leaves, it deprives them of photosynthesis. Spillage from the cement mill, the kiln and from the raw mill and raw mill silos cover the land and when it comes into contact

Materials Science Forum Vol. 814 p. 9 Scientific.Net

Environmental pollution in the process of coal mining is one of the typical environmental problems confronted in China. In this paper, the life cycle inventory (LCI) of gangue was acquired by the method of life cycle assessment and further environmental impact assessment was achieved as well.

Assessment of CO2 Emission Reduction in Road

The production process of the cement industry comprises four stages, which are raw material mining, raw material grinding, clinker sintering, and cement grinding. Various raw materials are placed into the powder with specific fineness and proper and uniform ingredients, which is the raw batch, and the power

Characterization and parametric study of the flow

2021-4-22  clinker produced [3]. As a rule of thumb, the raw meal can be assumed to consist of approximately 75% of limestone and 25% of clay. 1.1.1 Cement chemistry First of all it is needed to be said that the raw meal composition and its mineralogical

The clinker burning process and its influence on the

2021-2-19  composition of raw mix Chemical & mineralogical composition of clinker Burning process Chemical composition of fuels Circulation phenomena Factors influencing cement quality Cement is produced by grinding clinker together with some admixtures: gypsum, slag, pozzolan, limestone, among others. Free lime C3S C2S C3A C4AF Gypsum

Life cycle assessment of the Spanish cement industry

2014-4-12  The inventory is split into two linked unit processes: clinker and cement production, each of them with different functional units, 1 t of clinker and 1 t of grey cement. The clinker unit process includes the primary raw materials and the fuels required as well as the transport of the materials and the infrastructures (see Table 4).

Method and apparatus for control of kiln feed

The process of clinkering cement raw materials using a rotary kiln, either wet, dry or preheater, is well known. In addition to limestone, common raw materials for the production of clinker are clay, shale, fly ash and iron oxide. As limestone deposits are not uniform, the

Modeling and Optimization of Cement Raw Materials

Cement production will experience several procedures which include raw materials blending process and burning process, cement clinker grinding process, and packaging process. Cement raw material and cement clinkers mainly contain four oxides: calcium oxide or lime (CaO), silica (SiO 2 ), alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), and iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ).